The framework itself stipulates that by 2022, participating countries will have to remove tariffs on 90% of the products they produce and eliminate non-tariff barriers, such as border duty delays, import quotas, subsidies, regulatory bottlenecks, etc. The free trade area can only enter into force if all protocols from at least 22 countries are finalized and ratified. Beyond the commitment and political determination of African heads of state, AfCFTA`s greatest organizational challenge lies in the ownership and participation of the African population. Critical buy-ins that will generate local ownership and sustainability depend on the active participation of the private sector, the banking sector and local manufacturing, small and medium-sized cross-border traders, science, civil society groups, women`s organized groups, cooperatives and the media in and between countries. After the Kigali summit, more signatures were added for the AfCFTA. At the African Union summit in Nouakchott on 1 July 2018, five other nations, including South Africa, joined the agreement. Kenya and Ghana were the first nations to ratify the agreement and file their ratifications on 10 May 2018.  Of the signatories, 22 had to ratify the agreement in order for it to enter into force, and it happened on 29 April 2019, when Sierra Leone and the Arab Democratic Republic of the Sahara ratified the agreement.  As a result, the agreement came into force 30 days later on 30 May 2019; At that time, only Benin, Nigeria and Eritrea had not signed. Outstanding issues, such as trade agreements and rules of origin, are still being negotiated.
[when?] Africa is growing, but not fast enough. For more than 400 million Africans to emerge from poverty, sustained economic growth in the 54 African countries must increase by an average of 7% per year. Trade is a powerful engine of growth. But in terms of trade, Africa is the least integrated region in the world, where intra-African exports accounted for 18% of total exports in 2016. The agreement was negotiated by the African Union (AU) and signed on 21 March 2018 by 44 of its 55 member states in Kigali, Rwanda.   The agreement first requires members to remove tariffs on 90% of goods, allowing free access to goods, goods and services across the continent.  The UN Economic Commission for Africa estimates that the agreement will boost intra-African trade by 52% by 2022.  The proposal is expected to enter into force 30 days after ratification by 22 of the signatory states.  On 2 April 2019, The Gambia became the 22nd state to ratify the Convention and on 29 April, the Sahrawi Republic tabled the 22nd filing of ratification instruments; The agreement entered into force on 30 May and entered its operational phase following a summit on 7 July 2019.
 Albert Muchanga, Commissioner for Trade and Industry, told Africa Renewal that the African Free Trade Agreement will not be a traditional trade agreement focused on tariff reduction.